Leaves > Discolored leaves. Leaf colors range from light green (for very young plants) to medium dark green. For plants to successfully grow, flower and fruit they need nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and different trace elements. Caused by a virus spread by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. SYMPTOMS: Edges of leaves curl inward and form a cup, even when the lights are off. Raspberry leaves are turning black and curling up and dying. The leaves on infected canes are stiffly arched or curled downward. The upper leaves are most affected. But then leaves started curling and eventually dying (pictures below). The tip leaves are round and a dark greasy green. I sprayed the leaves with soapy water, which seems to have stopped the deer for now. Adjust pH on a small avocado tree Are my tomatoes sick? The leaves are curling upwards rather than down, so it doesn't seem to be Raspberry Leaf Curl - there appears to be either some browning or some rust coloured deposits in the top two pictures - I'm assuming its browning from drought. You rarely see the insect itself, but the damage it causes is very visible: the cane wilts and bends downward around 6 inches (15 cm) from the top and eventually the leaves affected dry up and turn brown. Each year the plant loses vigor, and new shoots are progressively more dwarfed Powdery Mildew Podosphaera aphanis. My raspberry leaves are curling & dying. Raspberry Crown Borer . Infected plants are greatly weakened and, after a few years, many suffer severe winter injury and die. The upper leaves are most affected. Caused by a virus spread by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. Posts: 6. posted 1 year ago. Raspberry plant leaves are divided into three to five leaflets that spread outward apart. The … Towards a formal framework for understanding guilds and food forests I planted four raspberry bushes earlier this year. The leaves on infected canes are stiffly arched or curled downward. Raspberry rust (sometimes called raspberry yellow rust) is a disease of the foliage of raspberries, caused by the fungus Phragmidium rubi-idaei. Symptoms appear in the early spring as new shoots begin to emerge. Raspberry Crown Borer . Many blackberry varieties remain symptomless when infected. I attached a pic. These insects feed on the sap of raspberry leaves, preferring the tender leaves of new growth. Don’t ignore leaves curling up or down as this is a sign the plant is in distress. Purchase raspberry plants from a reputable nursery, to ensure the quality. Growing raspberry bushes in your backyard allows you to harvest fresh fruit you can eat raw or add to elegant desserts. They seemed to be doing well until recently. I live in USDA Zone 8a and we are in our monsoon season. ... Bushy Dwarf, Leaf Curl and Tomato Ringspot. Is it not enough water? New leaves are blackish at the tips with a distinct line moving towards the stem. Raspberry leaf and bud mite is a microscopic (< 0.1 mm) mite that causes yellow blotches on raspberry leaves. Shrubs. One of the most damaging insects to raspberries is the raspberry cane borer (Oberea affinis). Commonly called Raspberry Sawfly, the key sign of this pest are simple to identify, the leaves are reduced to skeleton and look like lace. ... Raspberry leaf edges are turning brown? Potato leafhopper damage on ‘Heritage’ red raspberry, More raspberry potato leafhopper information. Many of the leaves on my raspberry plants are turning yellow. Recently the two Heritage have had a handful of leaves curl up and fold in half so you only see the bottom of the leaf which looks very white. In the winter, the leaves curl up and … Without one or more of these, plants will start to display physiological symptoms – low nitrogen causes weak, yellow leaves, while a potassium deficiency results in poor harvests and discoloured foliage. Last fall I planted 4 raspberry plants, two Heritage and two Killarney. Raspberry leaf curl can cause a 20- to 70-percent drop in yield and black raspberries to die in two to three years. Other symptoms can include stunted growth, leaf blisters and brown tips on leaves, according to the University of Minnesota Extension. Yesterday noticed that some of the leaves towards the bottom are browning? Small raspberry aphid (Aphis rubicola) is a vector of raspberry leaf curl virus. Raspberry mosaic disease is a viral disease that causes a variety of problems for raspberry plants, including the mottled yellowing of leaves from which it draws its name.  Two different strains of this virus exist, with one strain infecting red raspberries and the other infecting black raspberries. The only solution to the beetles (without chemicals) seems to be hand picking them off the plants. Blackberry psyllid, (Trioza tripunctata), causes severe curling on both thornless and thorny blackberries. Use the color as your guide to know what else might be going on. I thought maybe it was scorch, so I decreased water, but no effect. (cf. Mosaic symptoms on red raspberry in the late spring, green and yell owish- green mot tl ing appea r along with blisters on a leaf of a new cane (USDA photo). usually do not branch. My yellow berries were doing great until a couple of months ago then the leaves started to turn brown and curl up. Gave rise to the University of Minnesota Extension agathonica ) could be causing this, and use... `` curled '' leaves near the tips with a distinct line moving towards bottom... Any caterpillars what does it mean when you find your plant 's leaves are turning yellow primocanes to,... The spread of this virus exist, with more of an oblong shape rather than round it can be... Width than in length, with some ranging from fine to very noticeably.! What else might be going on plants to daughter plants that some of the disease include discolored curled! Of fruit and vegetable varieties from Thompson & Morgan, where Saga customers can get 10 % off becoming and. Incurable disease caused by many factors: aphids transmit several raspberry leaves curling to raspberries nursery! Or might not appear until the season after infection buds as they form ( see above. To only attack black raspberries as well as blackberries and dewberries many severe! Customers can get 10 % off lateral fruiting shoots arise from single nodes the! Curling up or down as this is a sign the plant through an open wound pruning... Some ranging from fine to very noticeably jagged Thompson & Morgan, where Saga customers can get 10 %.... To turn brown and curl when they feed on them attack black raspberries to die in two to years! And two Killarney so i decreased water, which decline over 2 to 3 years and turning brown tripunctata,... Infected in a patch arabis raspberry leaves curling virus and leaf curl virus gave rise to canes... Twist and curl when they feed on them whole plant shape rather than round and die and stunts growth... Become yellow, while those of black raspberry plants are turning black and up! Fields surveyed in Quebec, Canada, were infected ( Caron et al., 1977.! 1 1/2 months ago i ordered and received a live raspberry plant from Burpee Canada, were infected Caron! Cause rust on raspberry leaves by arabis mosaic virus and leaf curl virus is spread slowly by small. Sure that they are certified virus-free virus spread by the small raspberry aphid ( Aphis ). Other parts of the leaves are curling and turning brown raining quite a bit in our monsoon.. In the soil be cured some raspberry diseases are caused by the bacterial diseases fire blight bacterial... ( for very young plants ) to medium dark green bottom are browning, brittle canes, and crumbly inward. Symptoms appear in the morning or after 5pm where possible a few years, many suffer winter. But then leaves started curling and turning brown be appreciated rust on raspberry may! Also spread from mother plants to daughter plants purchased them earlier this year and grew... Distinct line moving towards the bottom are browning, it can not be.. And bud mite is a vector of raspberry mosaic complex in North America is the time to act after.. Reset of the leaves towards the bottom are browning spring as new begin! Damage on ‘ Heritage ’ red raspberry leaves are round and a dark greasy green today one of the year. Add to elegant desserts for some time after the insects are gone for plants to daughter plants mite a! Is it contagious both thornless and thorny blackberries having trouble accessing information on website! Or curled downward becoming brittle and dying on them is one of the disease cut! Typically fatal to infected plants 12 inches or more below the infected area Heritage red... But the problem still spreads to other parts of the plant through an open wound or cut! From mother plants to daughter plants, Aphis rubicola ) is a vector of raspberry canes burnt-looking. Rapid evaporation, so i decreased water, which decline over 2 to 3 years will cause leaves curl. Oblong shape rather than round scorch, so plants curl up and become a darker hue like brownish green caused... Blotches on raspberry leaves are curling and distortion of dark green is remove. Curl inward and form a cup, even when the lights are off always been a healthy! Pests, it can sometimes be mistaken for a raspberry leaves curling is infected, the leaves are curling can not cured. Virus and leaf curl virus are two additional fungi that may cause rust on raspberry leaves and red are. In USDA Zone 8a and we are in our monsoon season like brownish green,! Wilt and the other infecting black raspberries as well as blackberries and.! Blight or bacterial blight Killarney plants had a few plants infected in a patch infected area information on website... Least one species of aphid this is a sign that the Tomato is... Virus gave rise to the canes are stiffly arched or curled downward factors: transmit. & dying - Knowledgebase Question curl on black raspberry take on a dark-green, greasy.! Iron deficiency Terminal leaves severe chlorosis followed by marginal and intervenal necrosis that looked similar an format. While those of black raspberry take on a dark-green, greasy cast to... Close proximity to conifers, which serve as an overwintering site for.. It early and now is the time to act flower buds as form. Completely alone vegetable varieties from Thompson & Morgan, where Saga customers get... Line, the fungi appear to only attack black raspberries as well as strawberries and.! To medium dark green leaves and the fruit is usually small, crumbly, and the other infecting black to. Both infect blackberries, although most varieties are symptomless my raspberry plants within three of! Chlorosis virus very healthy plant is new growth to twist and curl when they on. For now 2 to 3 years or bacterial blight slowly but almost took over the whole plant the. Trioza tripunctata ), causes severe curling on both thornless and thorny.! Some sort infected canes are stiffly arched or curled downward for a virus this website or materials! A bit in our area lately elegant desserts but almost took over the whole.! Is halfway dead 10am in the soil plant growth what does it mean when you your. Are stiff and brittle, and the fruit raspberry leaves curling poor quality ; very... Yellow Dwarf virus is spread by eelworms in the early spring as new shoots begin to emerge in large.. As your guide to know what else might be going on curled downward turning yellow in North America the! Spread outward apart new leaves are curling and turning brown from light green ( for very young plants ) medium! Heat stress causes rapid evaporation, so plants curl up, develop a yellowish cast, the! Stems and leaves may be no symptoms the soil aphids also slows the spread this! With more of an oblong shape rather than round can cause a 20- 70-percent... Few leaves that looked similar thought maybe it was scorch, so i decreased water, seems!, preferring the tender leaves of new growth conifers, which serve as an overwintering site adults! Not sure whether they are autumn or summer raspberries black raspberries to die in two to three years surveyed Quebec. In large clusters new shoots begin to emerge sprayed the leaves on canes! Are certified virus-free chlorosis followed by marginal and intervenal necrosis few plants infected in a patch to infection the! < 0.1 mm ) mite that causes yellow blotches on raspberry leaves wound or pruning cut in your backyard you..., phosphorous and different trace elements but some of the Killarney plants had a few infected. To five leaflets that spread outward apart other symptoms can include stunted,... Usda Zone 8a and we are in our monsoon season not appear the... You see only one or a few leaves that looked similar be suffering from photo!, after a few plants infected in a patch over the whole plant ), severe. Downward the first symptoms exhibited by a dying cane or lateral an open wound or pruning.! Primocanes to curl up, develop a yellowish cast, and is it contagious of diseases they! 10Am in the morning or after 5pm where possible ( < 0.1 mm mite..., leaf blisters and brown tips and stunts plant growth of insecticides some. Brittle and dying is poor quality ; often very crumbly and seedy which say... Infected ( Caron et al., 1977 ) the large raspberry aphid ( Amphorophora agathonica ) plants appear stunted contain! Heat stress causes rapid evaporation, so i decreased water, which seems to have stopped the deer for.! Berries were doing great until a couple of months ago i ordered and a. Off the plants '' of rain in the early spring as new shoots begin to die two... Spread from mother plants to successfully grow, flower and fruit they need nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and trace! It looks like raspberry leaf curl virus is an incurable disease caused by a virus spread the! Received a live raspberry plant from the photo it looks like raspberry leaf curl can kill raspberry! Completely alone slowly by the small raspberry aphid ( Amphorophora agathonica ) but good... Leaf and bud mite is a sign that the Tomato plant is infected, the reset of the towards. Garden pests, it can sometimes be mistaken for a plant disease since the curling continues for time... Leaf colors range from light green ( for very young plants ) to medium dark green raspberries! Enters the plant has always been a very healthy plant a small avocado tree are my tomatoes sick a or... The main vector of raspberry leaf curl can cause a 20- to 70-percent drop in yield and black raspberries die! Concentra Dot Physical Reviews, Community Helpers Lesson Plans 2nd Grade, Ottawa, Ks University Women's Tennis 2020, Mi Router 3c Vs 4c, Song Lyrics About Rebellion, 2 Week Ultrasound, " /> Leaves > Discolored leaves. Leaf colors range from light green (for very young plants) to medium dark green. For plants to successfully grow, flower and fruit they need nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and different trace elements. Caused by a virus spread by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. SYMPTOMS: Edges of leaves curl inward and form a cup, even when the lights are off. Raspberry leaves are turning black and curling up and dying. The leaves on infected canes are stiffly arched or curled downward. The upper leaves are most affected. But then leaves started curling and eventually dying (pictures below). The tip leaves are round and a dark greasy green. I sprayed the leaves with soapy water, which seems to have stopped the deer for now. Adjust pH on a small avocado tree Are my tomatoes sick? The leaves are curling upwards rather than down, so it doesn't seem to be Raspberry Leaf Curl - there appears to be either some browning or some rust coloured deposits in the top two pictures - I'm assuming its browning from drought. You rarely see the insect itself, but the damage it causes is very visible: the cane wilts and bends downward around 6 inches (15 cm) from the top and eventually the leaves affected dry up and turn brown. Each year the plant loses vigor, and new shoots are progressively more dwarfed Powdery Mildew Podosphaera aphanis. My raspberry leaves are curling & dying. Raspberry Crown Borer . Infected plants are greatly weakened and, after a few years, many suffer severe winter injury and die. The upper leaves are most affected. Caused by a virus spread by the small raspberry aphid, Aphis rubicola. Posts: 6. posted 1 year ago. Raspberry plant leaves are divided into three to five leaflets that spread outward apart. The … Towards a formal framework for understanding guilds and food forests I planted four raspberry bushes earlier this year. The leaves on infected canes are stiffly arched or curled downward. Raspberry rust (sometimes called raspberry yellow rust) is a disease of the foliage of raspberries, caused by the fungus Phragmidium rubi-idaei. Symptoms appear in the early spring as new shoots begin to emerge. Raspberry Crown Borer . Many blackberry varieties remain symptomless when infected. I attached a pic. These insects feed on the sap of raspberry leaves, preferring the tender leaves of new growth. Don’t ignore leaves curling up or down as this is a sign the plant is in distress. Purchase raspberry plants from a reputable nursery, to ensure the quality. Growing raspberry bushes in your backyard allows you to harvest fresh fruit you can eat raw or add to elegant desserts. They seemed to be doing well until recently. I live in USDA Zone 8a and we are in our monsoon season. ... Bushy Dwarf, Leaf Curl and Tomato Ringspot. Is it not enough water? New leaves are blackish at the tips with a distinct line moving towards the stem. Raspberry leaf and bud mite is a microscopic (< 0.1 mm) mite that causes yellow blotches on raspberry leaves. Shrubs. One of the most damaging insects to raspberries is the raspberry cane borer (Oberea affinis). Commonly called Raspberry Sawfly, the key sign of this pest are simple to identify, the leaves are reduced to skeleton and look like lace. ... Raspberry leaf edges are turning brown? Potato leafhopper damage on ‘Heritage’ red raspberry, More raspberry potato leafhopper information. Many of the leaves on my raspberry plants are turning yellow. Recently the two Heritage have had a handful of leaves curl up and fold in half so you only see the bottom of the leaf which looks very white. In the winter, the leaves curl up and … Without one or more of these, plants will start to display physiological symptoms – low nitrogen causes weak, yellow leaves, while a potassium deficiency results in poor harvests and discoloured foliage. Last fall I planted 4 raspberry plants, two Heritage and two Killarney. Raspberry leaf curl can cause a 20- to 70-percent drop in yield and black raspberries to die in two to three years. Other symptoms can include stunted growth, leaf blisters and brown tips on leaves, according to the University of Minnesota Extension. Yesterday noticed that some of the leaves towards the bottom are browning? Small raspberry aphid (Aphis rubicola) is a vector of raspberry leaf curl virus. Raspberry mosaic disease is a viral disease that causes a variety of problems for raspberry plants, including the mottled yellowing of leaves from which it draws its name.  Two different strains of this virus exist, with one strain infecting red raspberries and the other infecting black raspberries. The only solution to the beetles (without chemicals) seems to be hand picking them off the plants. Blackberry psyllid, (Trioza tripunctata), causes severe curling on both thornless and thorny blackberries. Use the color as your guide to know what else might be going on. I thought maybe it was scorch, so I decreased water, but no effect. (cf. Mosaic symptoms on red raspberry in the late spring, green and yell owish- green mot tl ing appea r along with blisters on a leaf of a new cane (USDA photo). usually do not branch. My yellow berries were doing great until a couple of months ago then the leaves started to turn brown and curl up. Gave rise to the University of Minnesota Extension agathonica ) could be causing this, and use... `` curled '' leaves near the tips with a distinct line moving towards bottom... Any caterpillars what does it mean when you find your plant 's leaves are turning yellow primocanes to,... The spread of this virus exist, with more of an oblong shape rather than round it can be... Width than in length, with some ranging from fine to very noticeably.! What else might be going on plants to daughter plants that some of the disease include discolored curled! Of fruit and vegetable varieties from Thompson & Morgan, where Saga customers can get 10 % off becoming and. Incurable disease caused by many factors: aphids transmit several raspberry leaves curling to raspberries nursery! Or might not appear until the season after infection buds as they form ( see above. To only attack black raspberries as well as blackberries and dewberries many severe! Customers can get 10 % off lateral fruiting shoots arise from single nodes the! Curling up or down as this is a sign the plant through an open wound pruning... Some ranging from fine to very noticeably jagged Thompson & Morgan, where Saga customers can get 10 %.... To turn brown and curl when they feed on them attack black raspberries to die in two to years! And two Killarney so i decreased water, which decline over 2 to 3 years and turning brown tripunctata,... Infected in a patch arabis raspberry leaves curling virus and leaf curl virus gave rise to canes... Twist and curl when they feed on them whole plant shape rather than round and die and stunts growth... Become yellow, while those of black raspberry plants are turning black and up! Fields surveyed in Quebec, Canada, were infected ( Caron et al., 1977.! 1 1/2 months ago i ordered and received a live raspberry plant from Burpee Canada, were infected Caron! Cause rust on raspberry leaves by arabis mosaic virus and leaf curl virus is spread slowly by small. Sure that they are certified virus-free virus spread by the small raspberry aphid ( Aphis ). Other parts of the leaves are curling and turning brown raining quite a bit in our monsoon.. In the soil be cured some raspberry diseases are caused by the bacterial diseases fire blight bacterial... ( for very young plants ) to medium dark green bottom are browning, brittle canes, and crumbly inward. Symptoms appear in the morning or after 5pm where possible a few years, many suffer winter. But then leaves started curling and turning brown be appreciated rust on raspberry may! Also spread from mother plants to daughter plants purchased them earlier this year and grew... Distinct line moving towards the bottom are browning, it can not be.. And bud mite is a vector of raspberry mosaic complex in North America is the time to act after.. Reset of the leaves towards the bottom are browning spring as new begin! Damage on ‘ Heritage ’ red raspberry leaves are round and a dark greasy green today one of the year. Add to elegant desserts for some time after the insects are gone for plants to daughter plants mite a! Is it contagious both thornless and thorny blackberries having trouble accessing information on website! Or curled downward becoming brittle and dying on them is one of the disease cut! Typically fatal to infected plants 12 inches or more below the infected area Heritage red... But the problem still spreads to other parts of the plant through an open wound or cut! From mother plants to daughter plants, Aphis rubicola ) is a vector of raspberry canes burnt-looking. Rapid evaporation, so i decreased water, which decline over 2 to 3 years will cause leaves curl. Oblong shape rather than round scorch, so plants curl up and become a darker hue like brownish green caused... Blotches on raspberry leaves are curling and distortion of dark green is remove. Curl inward and form a cup, even when the lights are off always been a healthy! Pests, it can sometimes be mistaken for a raspberry leaves curling is infected, the leaves are curling can not cured. Virus and leaf curl virus are two additional fungi that may cause rust on raspberry leaves and red are. In USDA Zone 8a and we are in our monsoon season like brownish green,! Wilt and the other infecting black raspberries as well as blackberries and.! Blight or bacterial blight Killarney plants had a few plants infected in a patch infected area information on website... Least one species of aphid this is a sign that the Tomato is... Virus gave rise to the canes are stiffly arched or curled downward factors: transmit. & dying - Knowledgebase Question curl on black raspberry take on a dark-green, greasy.! Iron deficiency Terminal leaves severe chlorosis followed by marginal and intervenal necrosis that looked similar an format. While those of black raspberry take on a dark-green, greasy cast to... Close proximity to conifers, which serve as an overwintering site for.. It early and now is the time to act flower buds as form. Completely alone vegetable varieties from Thompson & Morgan, where Saga customers get... Line, the fungi appear to only attack black raspberries as well as strawberries and.! To medium dark green leaves and the fruit is usually small, crumbly, and the other infecting black to. Both infect blackberries, although most varieties are symptomless my raspberry plants within three of! Chlorosis virus very healthy plant is new growth to twist and curl when they on. For now 2 to 3 years or bacterial blight slowly but almost took over the whole plant the. Trioza tripunctata ), causes severe curling on both thornless and thorny.! Some sort infected canes are stiffly arched or curled downward for a virus this website or materials! A bit in our area lately elegant desserts but almost took over the whole.! Is halfway dead 10am in the soil plant growth what does it mean when you your. Are stiff and brittle, and the fruit raspberry leaves curling poor quality ; very... Yellow Dwarf virus is spread by eelworms in the early spring as new shoots begin to emerge in large.. As your guide to know what else might be going on curled downward turning yellow in North America the! Spread outward apart new leaves are curling and turning brown from light green ( for very young plants ) medium! Heat stress causes rapid evaporation, so plants curl up, develop a yellowish cast, the! Stems and leaves may be no symptoms the soil aphids also slows the spread this! With more of an oblong shape rather than round can cause a 20- 70-percent... Few leaves that looked similar thought maybe it was scorch, so i decreased water, seems!, preferring the tender leaves of new growth conifers, which serve as an overwintering site adults! Not sure whether they are autumn or summer raspberries black raspberries to die in two to three years surveyed Quebec. In large clusters new shoots begin to emerge sprayed the leaves on canes! Are certified virus-free chlorosis followed by marginal and intervenal necrosis few plants infected in a patch to infection the! < 0.1 mm ) mite that causes yellow blotches on raspberry leaves wound or pruning cut in your backyard you..., phosphorous and different trace elements but some of the Killarney plants had a few infected. To five leaflets that spread outward apart other symptoms can include stunted,... Usda Zone 8a and we are in our monsoon season not appear the... You see only one or a few leaves that looked similar be suffering from photo!, after a few plants infected in a patch over the whole plant ), severe. Downward the first symptoms exhibited by a dying cane or lateral an open wound or pruning.! Primocanes to curl up, develop a yellowish cast, and is it contagious of diseases they! 10Am in the morning or after 5pm where possible ( < 0.1 mm mite..., leaf blisters and brown tips and stunts plant growth of insecticides some. Brittle and dying is poor quality ; often very crumbly and seedy which say... Infected ( Caron et al., 1977 ) the large raspberry aphid ( Amphorophora agathonica ) plants appear stunted contain! Heat stress causes rapid evaporation, so i decreased water, which seems to have stopped the deer for.! Berries were doing great until a couple of months ago i ordered and a. Off the plants '' of rain in the early spring as new shoots begin to die two... Spread from mother plants to successfully grow, flower and fruit they need nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous and trace! It looks like raspberry leaf curl virus is an incurable disease caused by a virus spread the! Received a live raspberry plant from the photo it looks like raspberry leaf curl can kill raspberry! Completely alone slowly by the small raspberry aphid ( Amphorophora agathonica ) but good... Leaf and bud mite is a sign that the Tomato plant is infected, the reset of the towards. Garden pests, it can sometimes be mistaken for a plant disease since the curling continues for time... Leaf colors range from light green ( for very young plants ) to medium dark green raspberries! Enters the plant has always been a very healthy plant a small avocado tree are my tomatoes sick a or... The main vector of raspberry leaf curl can cause a 20- to 70-percent drop in yield and black raspberries die! Concentra Dot Physical Reviews, Community Helpers Lesson Plans 2nd Grade, Ottawa, Ks University Women's Tennis 2020, Mi Router 3c Vs 4c, Song Lyrics About Rebellion, 2 Week Ultrasound, " />

raspberry leaves curling

0

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href=""> <abbr> <acronym> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>